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How to Cite - Guide to Citing Sources in Your Research Paper   Tags: apa, bibliography, chicago, citation, in-text, in-text citation, mla, parenthetical, works cited  

This guide lists selected Style Manuals, Citation Guides and other tools for citing both print and electronic/web sources in your work. Chesnutt Library also provides access to RefWorks, a web-based bibliography manager which automatically formats papers.
Last Updated: Jan 30, 2017 URL: http://libguides.uncfsu.edu/cite Print Guide RSS UpdatesEmail Alerts

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Basic Citation Styles

When using APA format:

  • follow the author-date method of in-text citation
  • the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text: for example, (Jones, 1998)
  • a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper
    • all sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper. (Purdue OWL).
Type of CitationFirst Citation in TextSubsequent Citations in TextParenthetical Format, First Citation in TextParenthetical Format, Subsequent Citations in Text
One work by one author Walker (2007) Walker (2007) (Walker, 2007) (Walker, 2007)
One work by two authors Walker and Allen (2004) Walker and Allen (2004) (Walker & Allen, 2004) (Walker & Allen, 2004)
One work by three to five authors Bradley, Ramirez, and Soo (1999) Bradley et al. (1999) (Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 1999) (Bradley et al., 1999)
One work by six or more authors Wasserstein et al. (2005) Wasserstein et al. (2005) (Wasserstein et al., 2005) (Wasserstein et al., 2005)
Groups as authors (readily identified through abbreviation) National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2003) NIMH (2003) (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2003) (NIMH, 2003)
Groups as authors (no abbreviation) University of Pittsburgh (2005) University of Pittsburgh (2005) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005)

Source: American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, D.C.: Author.

 

Direct Quotations and Paraphrasing

In-Text Citations

APA Style uses parenthetical, author-date citations. After a quote, add parentheses containing the author's name, the year of publication, and the page number of the work.

Example: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (Seuss, 2007, pp. 7-8).

If you use more than one work by the same author, use the letters a, b, etc., after the year.

Example: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (Seuss, 2007a, pp. 7-8).

If more than one author has the same last name, add their first initial.

Example: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (D. Seuss, 2007, pp. 7-8).

If two or more authors wrote the work, see the chart below.

If using the author's name in your text, do not include it in the parentheses.

Example: In his scholarly study, Dr. Seuss observed that "the quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (2007, pp. 7-8).
Example: In 2007, Dr. Seuss suggested that "the quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (pp. 7-8).

If no author name is available, use the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title). Use quotation marks around titles of articles or web pages and italicize titles of books, periodicals, etc.

Example: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (Fox in Socks, 2007).

If no pagination information is available, use paragraph numbers instead.

Example: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (Seuss, 2007, para. 5).

Note: When paraphrasing or mentioning another work, it is helpful to still provide pagination information if the source text is long or difficult, or if it would help the reader find the text being paraphrased.

 

Multi-Volume Works

Material Type

In-Text Citation

Reference

  

    Multiple volumes from    a multi-volume work

   (Garraty and Carnes, 1999)

  

    Garraty, J. A., Carnes, M. C., & American Council of Learned Societies.    (1999).    American national biography (Vols. 1-4). New York: Oxford    University Press.

  Use Vol. for a single volume and Vols. for multiple volumes.                                                      

   A single volume from a        multi-volume work

   (Gutman, 1995)

   Gutman, I. (1995). Encyclopedia of the Holocaust (Vol. 3-4, p. 1209). New    York: Macmillan Library Reference USA.

 

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