FAQs: In-Text Citations
|APA: How do I cite a website within my paper? (Source: PurdueOwl)|
Electronic Resources: If possible, cite an electronic document the same as any other document by using the author-date style.
Example: Kenneth (2000) explained...
Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.
Example: According to the American Psychological Association (2000),...
If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.
First citation: (Mothers Against Drunk Driving [MADD], 2000)
Second citation: (MADD, 2000)
Unknown Author: If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.
Example: A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers ("Using APA," 2001).
Unknown Author and Unknown Date: If no author or date is given, use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation "n.d." (for "no date").
Example: Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring ("Tutoring and APA," n.d.).
MLA: What's New in the 8th Edition?
The eighth edition of the MLA Handbook, published in 2016, rethinks documentation for an era of digital publication.
- The MLA now recommends a universal set of guidelines that writers can apply to any source and gives writers in all fields—from the sciences to the humanities—the tools to intuitively document sources.
The List of Works Cited
- The eighth edition of the MLA Handbook introduces a new model for entries in the works-cited list, one that reflects recent changes in how works are published and consulted.
- Previously, a writer created an entry by following the MLA’s instructions for the source’s publication format (book, DVD, Web page, etc.).
- That approach has become impractical today, since publication formats are often combined (a song listened to online, for example, could have been taken from a record album released decades ago) or are undefinable.
In the new model, the work’s publication format is not considered.
- Instead of asking, “How do I cite a book [or DVD or Web page]?” the writer creates an entry by consulting the MLA’s list of core elements—facts common to most works—which are assembled in a specific order.
- The MLA core elements appear below:
- In the new model, then, the writer asks, “Who is the author? What is the title?” and so forth—regardless of the nature of the source.
- Because of this fundamental change, the works-cited-list entries produced by the two approaches are different. Below are differences that might be overlooked by writers making the transition from the seventh edition.
Source: Modern Language Association. What's New in the Eighth Edition? Modern Language Association of America, 2016. https://www.mla.org/MLA-Style/What-s-New-in-the-Eighth-Edition.